Mineral base oil
Conventional mineral based lubricant oil have high viscosity at Room temperature, viscosity reduces with increase in temperature. (i.e. Thicker at Room temperature, become thinner high temperature)
This property makes them to form thin surface coating over the moving parts inside the engine, making the engine more susceptible to wear and tear.
Mineral base lubricant oil oxidises more readily at high temperature inside engine, making them less efficient after running your vehicle a certain miles, so the engine oil became less efficient after some time.
Particle sizes are not uniform.

Synthetic oil
Synthetic lubricant oil on the other hand have very high viscosity index, a property which make them not to thin at high temperature.
Synthetic lubricant oil forms thick film coating over the moving part inside the engine by protecting engine parts against friction
Less oxidisable at high temperature.
Have high shear strength.
Particle sizes are uniform.
Chemically inert.
Operating temperature is less
Increase engine performance and power.

When Mineral base oil and synthetic based oil are blended together semi- synthetic oil is formed.
Semi-synthetic based lubrication oil is above mineral based oil and have the same advantage as synthetic based lubrication oil.
Which is right engine oil, high viscosity oil or low viscosity oil?

High viscosity oil:
High viscosity oil is very difficult for oil pump to pump the oil inside the engine.
High viscosity oil increases the resistance of moving part to rotate freely, there by adding extra torque to engine.
High Viscosity oil flows slowly, so when engine is started it take time to flow, thereby they don’t protect the engine effectively.
High viscosity oil doesn’t thin at high temperature so they protect engine at high temperature.

Low viscosity oil:
Low viscosity oil is easy for oil pump to pump the oil inside the engine.
Low viscosity oil doesn’t increases resistance of moving part, so torque of the engine is less.
Low Viscosity oil flows freely, so when engine is started it takes time to flows quickly, thereby protect the engine effectively.
Low viscosity oil trends to be thinner at high temperature, thereby don’t protect the engine at high temperature.

Multi-grade (viscosity) oil:
So it is important to choose a right SAE grade engine oil, which protects engine at low as well as high temperature.
Multi –grade engine oil which have the property of low viscosity oil at low temperature and high viscosity oil at high temperature thereby protecting engine at all temperature.
One such product is Bezin India Fineol premium multi-grade engine oil.
Fineol premium multi-grade engine oil protects the engine at low as well as high temperature.

Further Reading:

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